As the global effort to decarbonise continues, one of the most important goals is to ensure that global warming is limited to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Failure to do so would result in the Antarctic ice sheet melting, causing severe issues like flooding, the displacement of coastal populations and the destruction of livelihoods and property.
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To help measure the scale of transformation needed, the world relies on a carbon budget – an upper limit of the total greenhouse gas emissions that can be allowed before we hit the ceiling of 2 degrees Celsius warming.
This is usually calculated based on historical cumulative emissions from fossil fuel combustion, land-use change and industrial processes. Due to geopolitical considerations and structural complexities, allocating the carbon budget across countries and sectors is a major challenge.
For investors, analysing an industry’s decarbonisation potential – which includes its commitment to research and development and the availability of technological breakthroughs, among other factors – is equally demanding. Investors must be able to identify sectors, such as electrical utilities, that are capable of decarbonising quickly and cost-efficiently, compared to those that require more time, such as aviation.
One essential tool is environmental, social and governance (ESG) data. Having quality-controlled, rigorously verified data is key to anticipating regulatory changes, managing risks, and – most importantly – spotting the opportunities presented by the global transition to net zero carbon emissions.